Arms-production Capabilities in the Indo-Pacific Region: Measuring Self-reliance

Xiao Liang / Dr Lucie Béraud-Sudreau / Siemon T. Wezeman and Ming Sun

Armed forces in the Indo-Pacific region remain dependent on weapon systems imported from foreign suppliers. This is despite the efforts of many governments in the Indo-Pacific to implement policies that support the development of local arms industrial capabilities with the aim of increasing self-reliance.

This report develops three indicators to give a score and regional ranking of self-reliance in arms production to 12 jurisdictions in the Indo-Pacific region: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Viet Nam.

Overall, this report contributes to knowledge and debates on armament trends and military modernization in the Indo-Pacific. In a region where tensions among neighbours are rising, it further contributes to transparency with regard to levels of self-reliance in domestic arms production, allowing for an independent assessment of the region’s respective arms industries.


  1. Introduction

  2. Methodology

  3. Australia

  4. China

  5. India

  6. Indonesia

  7. Japan

  8. South Korea

  9. Malaysia

10. Pakistan

11. Singapore

12. Taiwan

13. Thailand

14. Viet Nam

15. Comparing levels of self-reliance in arms production in Indo-Pacific


Xiao Liang is a Research Assistant with the SIPRI Military Expenditure and Arms Production Programme.

Dr Lucie Béraud-Sudreau is Director of the Military Expenditure and Arms Production Programme.

Siemon T. Wezeman is a Senior Researcher with the SIPRI Arms Transfers Programme.

Courtesy: (SIPRI)