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US, Russia UNSC vetoes costing civilian lives

Mustafa Deveci

The US and Russia, two of the five permanent members of UN Security Council (UN-SC), frequently veto draft resolutions designed to allay humanitarian crises, leading to civilian deaths in Palestine and Syria. While the US provides Israel with diplomatic cover by using its veto power, Russia reserves this power for Syria.

Meanwhile, civilians — in both Palestine and Syria — end up paying the price.  The US proposed a draft resolution calling for an independent probe into the recent suspected chemical attack in Syria’s Eastern Ghouta district that left 78 civilians dead. The resolution, however, was vetoed by Russia at the UNSC.

On Apr. 7, the US — for the second time — vetoed a draft resolution calling for an investigation into excessive force used by Israel that has recently left dozens of Palestinians dead.  To date, the US has vetoed at least 40 draft resolutions critical of Israel. Th-irty of these sought to warn or condemn Israel for its oc-cupation of Palestinian land.

Since 2011, when the civil war erupted in Syria, Russia has vetoed 12 draft resolutions critical of Syria’s Assad regime.  On Jan. 23, 1976, the US — for the first time — vetoed a UNSC draft resolution on the Palestinian issue. That draft had called for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state, for Palestinian refugees in neighboring countries to return to their homes, and for compensation to be paid to those who couldn’t return.

It also called on Israel to withdraw from territory it occupied in 1967.  At around the same time, the US vetoed a draft resolution on Jerusalem that had called on Israel to refrain fr-om altering the city’s religious and demographic character. US President Donald Trump’s recent decision to recognize Jerusalem as Isr-ael’s capital was also mentioned in a draft resolution in January, but that, too, was also vetoed by Washington. Russia, for its part, has used its veto power to prevent sanctions from being placed on the Syrian regime, which is said to have used chemical weapons against its own people.

The first time Russia used its veto power this way was on Oct. 4, 2011, when both Moscow and Beijing vetoed a draft resolution calling for sanctions against the Assad regime.  In May 2014, France proposed a draft resolution demanding that Assad reg-ime officials be tried in the International Court of Hum-an Rights for alleged war crimes.  But this draft resolution, too, was vetoed by both Russia and China.  And on Tuesday, Russia vetoed a draft resolution that would have established a committee tasked with determining who was responsible for the suspected chemical attack in Syria.

Civilians pay price: Washington’s and Russia’s protection of Israel and Assad respectively has only aggravated the crises in both countries. Encouraged by the US vetoes, Israel has maintained its oppressive policies by which some 5.3 million Palestinians continue to live as refugees.

According to Palestinian figures, more than 3,000 Palestinian children have been killed by Israeli troops since the start of 2000.  Since Gaza’s “Great Return” rallies kicked off on Mar. 30, at least 35 Palestinians have been killed by cross-border Israeli gunfire, while 3,000 others have been injured. Blockaded by Israel since 2007, the Gaza Strip’s roughly two million inhabitants continue to live in what observers describe as “the world’s largest outdoor prison”.   Conditions in Syria are even worse, with half of the population having been reduced to refugees amid ongoing violence by the regime and the Daesh and YPG/PKK terrorist groups.


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Corruption, deception, pretention and mockery in name of serving people!

Syed Ulfat Ahmed

Years back, legendary scientist Stephen Hawking said, “Gone are the days we could stand on our own, against the world. We need to be part of a larger group of nations, both for our security and trade.” But, if we look into today’s global scenario, we actually will find some rulers and regimes, who are trying to trash the perception of globalisation either because, they consider am ‘open door’ policy as a potential opponent to their country’s economic interests or a threat to their whimsical or authoritarian rule. In the developing nations like Bangladesh, for example, democracy are being gradually held hostage into the grips of corruption plagued autocracy.
German thinktank, Bertelsmann Stiftung on March 23, 2018 in a research study has already listed Bangladesh amongst the autocratic regimes. Because of severe interference of the autocratic rulers, various institutions including the judiciary had already turned into mere puppets. Good governance and rule of law has already been sent under life support. Back in 2015, when UK Labour Party’s MPP Tulip [Rizwana] Siddiq, daughter of Shafiq Siddique and Sheikh Rehana couple won the election, her aunt Sheikh Hasina, Prime Minister of Bangladesh, proudly told country’s parliament as to how her niece had won the election defeating her Westerner’ contestants.
The Prime Minister also told the parliament that her younger sister Sheikh Rehana [Tulip’s mother] is a British national and lives in UK under financial hardships. She further said, Sheikh Rehana goes at work in bus as she can’t afford buying a personal vehicle.
But the fact is quite different! Sheikh Rehana lives in Hampstead, which is a posh area housing affluent people!
Following her victory, Tulip Siddiq was invited to Bangladesh and were accorded several receptions. One of such receptions titled – Let’s Speak to Tulip Siddiq, MP, was organised at the Radisson Hotel in Dhaka and was sponsored by a fraudulent company namedProchchaya Limited!
In all of these receptions, Tulip Siddiq MP said, her aunt [Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina] is her icon and she wanted Tulip to join politics in Bangladesh.
Controversies centering the UK Labour Party MP:
According to media reports, Tulip Siddiq mediated a very controversial billion-dollar arms deal between Bangladesh and Russia [in 2013]. She also played keyrole behind the ongoing Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant in Bangladesh, under Russian assistance. Tulip didn’t offer this service for free! In addition to the monthly ‘honorarium’ she has been receiving from her aunt, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina since January 2009, Tulip’s mother Sheikh Rehana and several members of the ruling family dynasty in Bangladesh got 3 percent ‘kick-back’ from the Russians and the entire amount has been secretly deposited in several offshore bank accounts.
Dhaka:s largest Bangla daily the Prothom Aloin a report dated April 12, 2015, titled: ‘Tulip accused of concealing Putin link’, wrote: “A British newspaper has published a story alleging that Bangladeshi-origin La-bour candidate Tulip Siddiq concealed information of her meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, one of the most controversial figures in Europe today.
Mail Online reported that Tulip Siddiq was accused of “failing to tell voters that she met Vladimir Putin in Moscow two years ago [in 2013] when a controversial billion-dollar arms deal was signed” [between Bangladesh and Russia]. The report said the Tories accused Ms Siddiq of trying to conceal her extraordinary links to Putin and Sheikh Hasina, the Prime Miinister of Bangladesh.”
Tulip Siddiq, a former aide to Ed Miliband, and who is a Labour Party MP in Hampstead and Kilbern, was at the Kremlin with her aunt, the autocratic leader of Bangladesh who is accused of human rights abuses.
British newspaper Daily Mail also referred to a photograph that shows a smiling Ms Tulip Siddiq alongside Vladimir Putin and Sheikh Hasina, and Ms Siddiq’s mother Sheikh Rehana.
See the video on YouTube: Tulip Siddiq, Russian arms deal and Bangladesh dynasty politics. The report attributed to the Torries as claiming that she appears to have gone to great lengths to cover up her trip in January 2013 – just six months before she won a hotly-contested Labour sele-ction contest in Hampstead – and her links with Hasina.
The report added that the Tories also said she had deleted postings and photographs on her blog which showed how she campai-gned to get her aunt [Sheikh Hasina] re-elected [in a controversial voter-less election held on January 5, 2014. According to the report, the Torries “questioned why her 1,200-word official Lab-our profile made no mention of Putin, the arms deal or being a member of a ruling Bangladeshi dynasty”. British Labour Party MP Tulip Siddiq met Russian President Vladimir Putin on January 15, 2013 with Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina. Ms. Tulip also is an advisor to the Bangladeshi PM.
British MP Tulip’s Kremlin Connection: According to media reports, Tulip Siddiq mediated a very controversial billion-dollar arms deal between Bangladesh and Russia. She also played keyrole behind the ongoing Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant in Bangladesh, under Russian assistance. Tulip didn’t offer this service for free! I. addition to the monthly ‘honorarium’ she hass been receiving from her aunt, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina since January 2009, Tulip’s mother Sheikh Rehana and several members of the ruling family dynasty in Bangladesh got 3 percent ‘kick-back’ from the Russians and the entire amount has been secretly deposited in several offshore bank accounts.
Corruption allegations against the family members of Tulip Siddiq: Tulip’s paternal uncle Tarique Ahmed Siddique is the Security Advisor to the Bangladeshi Prime Minister. His wife and daughter are stakeholders in a company named Prochchaya Limited (Incorporatiom Certificate Number C-75659/09, dated March 25, 2009.
This company, in affiliation with a ponzy fund cheat fund company named Destiny Group had smuggled out around US$ 900 millions to different countries, including the United Kingdom and has opened a company named Zumana Investment & Properties Limited [Incorporation Certificate Number 7417417, dated October 25, 2010] in the United Kingdom by investigating dirty money! It is claimed by various newspapers in the UK and the world that Labour Party MP Tulip Siddiq has been maintaining discreet connections with Moscow ever since she met President Putin. Even some of those recently expelled Russian diplomats were visiting the house of Tulip’s mother.
When the politics of mockery would end?
We, the people, who vote our leaders into power do always expect them to be truthful, honest and dedicated. But, we mostly are betrayed by these leaders. This episode of deception, mockery and falsehood seems to be unending. Unless our leaders do not correct themselves, democracy will suffer while the country is not safe in their hands. Syed Ulfat Ahmed is a freelance columnist writing on diversified issues.

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Racial injustice in America is worse than you thought

Huma Yasin

Race permeates every facet of American society, and racism is the original sin of the American nation – deeply interwoven in its DNA culturally and institutionally. Can America change its DNA?

Fifty years after the murder of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the discrimination and erasure of black lives continues. From police shootings to sentencings, the legacy of injustices demonstrates that black people, for no other reason than the colour of their skin, are perceived as an inherently suspect class.

On the anniversary of King’s death, Saheed Vassell, an unarmed 34-year-old-black male, was shot dead by four New York Police Department police officers; three were not in uniform. None wore body cameras while discharging 10 rounds at Vassell, who was holding a metal pipe.

Weeks earlier, 23-year-old Stephon Clark, a black Muslim, was shot and killed in his grandmother’s backyard for having a cell phone. Though Clark’s religion didn’t play an apparent role in his murder, being simultaneously black and Muslim placed him in one of the most marginalised strata of society. According to Mapping Police Violence in 2017, most police killings occurred after law enforcement responded to non-violent offences or where no crime was reported.

A staggering 89 people were killed after a traffic stop. The report also states, “Black people were more likely to be killed by police, more likely to be unarmed, and less likely to be threatening someone when killed.” The Washington Post reported that four unarmed black men have been killed this year alone. That’s one black man each month. Though Black Lives Matter activists have drawn awareness to the issue of police violence in black communities, black men continue to be a perceived threat to law enforcement. That law enforcement can play judge, jury, and executioner without fear of a murder prosecution allows police officers to remain above the law. Civil claims have also provided little reprieve, interpreting the qualified immunity doctrine so generously, as to effectively immunise law enforcement from personal liability for their wrongdoing.

The systemic discrimination blacks face in the United States is not isolated to police violence. Civil Rights attorney Bryan Stevenson, in his book Just Mercy, details the case of Walter McMilan, an innocent black man who spent years on death row after the state of Alabama charged him with capital murder.

His real crime was having an extra-marital affair with a white woman in his small town. The shaky testimony used to convict McMilan was directly contradicted by the vast majority of the evidence, but that did not affect the jury outcome. The Sentencing Project documents police-civilian encounters in several US cities, including Boston.

The study shows that between 2007 and 2010, 63 percent of the people the “Boston Police Department observed, stopped, interrogated, frisked or searched without making an arrest” were black. In Boston, blacks are 24 percent  of the city’s population.

In 2014, the American Civil Liberties Union reported black males receive 20 percent higher sentences than their white counterparts convicted of similar crimes. Even sentencing guidelines prove problematic, for instance imposing stiffer penalties on crack possession, more common in the black community, than cocaine, more prevalent amongst whites, though the two are identical drugs with identical effects, but slightly different in composition. Possession of five grams of crack yields a five-year mandatory federal prison sentence. Triggering a five-year sentence for cocaine possession requires 500 grams of powder cocaine. That’s a 100-to-1 sentencing disparity.

As a lawyer who studies the systemic inculcation of Islamophobia in the law as an institution, that the disparate treatment the black community has received in the criminal justice system has permeated into the Muslim community is not lost on me.

This month, the Institute of Social Policy and Understanding after a two-year study reported that in two-thirds of the convicted plots involving Muslims, undercover informants provided the weapons and means to commit the crime, compared to 16 percent of investigations of non-Muslims. Muslim defendants received four times longer sentences than their non-Muslim counterparts for similar crimes and 7.5 times as much media attention for “foiled plots.”

In the 2008 Fort Dix Five prosecution, Serdar Tatar, one of five defendants, was convicted of conspiracy to kill US soldiers. He reported the undercover FBI informant as a potential terrorist to both a Philadelphia police officer and the FBI six months before the sting ended. He is currently serving a 33 year sentence.

Mat Johnson, a novelist and comic book writer who created a biracial superhero who goes undercover to solve hate crimes against blacks, was interviewed on the Interecepted podcast last month. His father is white and his mother is black, and in describing his white family members, he says, “They don’t even see their own race. Like, in their minds, they are race-less. Other people have race. They’re just normal people.”

Statistics confirm this. White males have committed more mass shootings than any other group, according to data collected by Mother Jones spanning over 25 years, and yet there’s no outcry to profile or map predominantly white communities. Because such surveillance is ineffective. Compare this to HBO Real Time host Bill Maher’s statement: “Vast numbers of Muslims across the world believe, and they do, that humans deserve to die for merely holding a different idea or drawing a cartoon or writing a book or eloping with the wrong person. Not only does the Muslim world have something in common with ISIS, it has too much in common with ISIS.” Certainly, law enforcement pursuing investigation or arrests of people engaged in criminal conduct is expected.

However, that so many people of colour are regularly targeted who pose no threat beyond being born black or Muslim, is a travesty of the protean Jim Crow who’s echo continues to resonate insidiously. In an interview, Stephon Clark’s fiancee, Salena Malli, told listeners: “When [law enforcement] shoot[s] someone, if affects more than the person that they kill.

Here, me, my children, my family, and Stephon’s family, we’re all suffering the shooting of an unarmed man. It’s caused unrest within our family, unrest within the community. And we seek justice for my love. That’s all we want.” It is time to lift qualified immunity from police officers using lethal force and terminating police officers who’ve used unjustifiable lethal force, as a first step. America needs a justice system that does not penalise people on the basis of their skin or religion. The health of American society depends on it so that 50 years from now we are not having the same conversation.


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UAE aggression targets fragile Somalia

Mohamed Salah Ahmed

In Feb. 8, 2017, Somalia set the stage for a “soft revolution” led by Mohamed Abdullahi Farmajo, an experienced diplomat and politician. His victory, which came at a time when the country needed hope to overcome major political and economic challenges, was celebrated across the Somali-speaking world. Farmajo’s success seemingly convinced the Somali people that political stability, robust economic growth and a sense of prosperity were finally within reach.

Over a year later, it is important to acknowledge Somalia’s accomplishments, even though the country continues to face many challenges. In a short time, President Farmajo’s administration implemented a number of key domestic policies to promote socio-economic progress – an easily overlooked success story. Taking those steps, Somalia has been able to largely avoid negative domestic and international consequences. A notable exception is Mogadishu’s deteriorating relations with the United Arab Emirates (UAE), whi-ch has strengthened its ties with Somalia’s regional aut-horities and signed treaties with them despite the central government’s objections.

The UAE’s noxious policy: In the wake of the 2017 Gulf Crisis, Somalia assumed a neutral position and urged international organizations, including the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), to mediate talks between the relevant parties. For some reason, Mogadishu’s neutrality was mistaken for implicit support to Doha, as advocates of the Qatar blockade attempted to strongarm the Somali government into siding with them. Despite mounting pressure, Somalia’s federal government remained neutral. This was not, however, the end of the story. Instead of respecting Mogadishu’s decision, the UAE, acting on behalf of the alliance that imposed the Qatar blockade, took steps to “encourage” (through financial assistance, development aid and investment) local state governments, officially known as Federal Member States, to challenge the federal government’s position – which fueled political tensions within Somalia.

Building on its strengthening relations with several federal state members, Abu Dhabi successfully crafted opposition against Mogadishu. The situation highlighted another problem in Somali politics: Foreign governments using their political and economic power as leverage against the weak federal and local governments to have things their way.

This situation was challenged when the Somali government arrested the leader of an opposition party, Abdirahman Abdishakur, for allegedly conspiring with foreign governments to remove President Farmajo from power. The UAE, Somali officials maintained, were behind this conspiracy. As a matter of fact, masked men, which, according to local media, were members of the UAE-trained security forces, retaliated by raiding the residence of Abdi Hassan Awale Qaybdiid, who cha-ired the Somali parliament’s Constitutional Committee. The government announced that it did not know who the assailants were.

The episode sheds some light on major tensions surrounding the state-building process in Somalia and demonstrates how fragile the project really is. Until there is a clear agreement between the country’s federal government and the “federal member states” on the powers and responsibilities of individual parts of the political system, along with implementation mechanisms and respect from external actors for Somalia’s sovereignty, the country will remain plagued by crises.

Agreement dilemma: But tensions between Somalia and the UAE continued. In March 2018, Somalia banned Dubai ports operator DP World from conducting business within its borders. The decision was followed by an agreement between Abu Dhabi and Somaliland, a semi-autonomous region, to develop an economic zone, under which the company owned 51 percent of the shares and Ethiopia, 19 percent. From Mogadishu’s perspective, the deal violated Somalia’s sovereignty and ultimately detrimental to its territorial integrity – even though it was made during Prime Minister Hassan Ali Khaire’s visit to the UAE.Under the Somali constitution, federal government institutions alone have the power to sign foreign investment agreements – which was the reasoning behind the deal’s cancellation. Although Somaliland unilaterally declared independence from Somalia in 2017 and therefore does not consider itself subject to the federal constitution, other parties to the agreement were clearly in violation of international law and diplomatic protocol, provided that Somaliland’s independence remains unrecognized.

Since the Treaty of Westphalia, which was signed in 1648, national sovereignty has been a core principle of international law. As such, all nation-states are considered sovereign over their territory and internal affairs – which means that foreign governments must not meddle in the affairs of other nations. Needless to say, this principle applies to all countries regardless of their size, wealth and geographical location. The UAE, however, seems to violate this universal principle by pursuing a noxious, destabilizing and destructive policy in Somalia.

In response to the UAE’s acts of aggression, President Farmajo recently addressed the Somali parliament and warned against foreign government meddling in the country’s affairs: “The Somali government is committed to protecting the sovereignty of the Somali territory. Somalia is open to investment and trade from other countries. But anyone who is willing to invest in Somalia must follow the legal path by obtaining permission from legitimate institutions.” Moreover, the most recent political developments established that Somalia must identify new priorities – namely, a constitutional overhaul, security and reconciliation.

Possible options: To be clear, addressing the challenge posed by the UAE won’t be an easy task for Somalia. Going forward, there are several options available to the country’s top policymakers. First, diplomatic engagement could help Somalia cope with pressing problems. Provided that the Somali prime minister recently visited the UAE to no avail, however, highlights the limits of this option. Seeking mediation from the Arab League, of which both countries are members, could be another possibility – a step that Somalia has already taken. In fact, raising this issue with the OIC, too, could be helpful. Moreover, the Somali government must start lobbying the Intergovernmental Authority of Development (IGAD) in order to secure the support of other nations to Mogadishu’s sovereignty. Last but not least, launching regional and global campaigns to raise awareness about the UAE threat could provide much-needed relief to Somalia and represent a victory for its statehood and unity.

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Agriculture in crises

Ammar Saleem

As a student of agricultural university, I consider myself to take advantage of writing skills and enlighten the hidden problems of agriculture. Our agriculture contributes approxiamately 63% of economy. Unfortunately the parasites like corruption,incompetency in workng body,climate change,imports etc are acting as a host in national body. Our soil has ability to grow even in worse conditions but the main problem are lack of reforms in this sector. Our old methods are still surviving in this mechanical world.

The diseases are still dominant in green crops. The farmers do not have valid techniques to cope with the challanges of today. I found many students of my university gaining knowldge of today’s agricuture but the tragedy is that there are no jobs available in this country due to which incompetency is increasing in agriculture sector. The food spoilage is major issue and it is increasing with the passage of time. Our export rate is lowering and imports rate is increasing due to which the prices are flying and local person is unable to reach.

I have completed the whole visit of punjab including each and every motorway. I found hundred of bridges but found just few drops of water under them.  So how it is possible that without water our fields will be green and fluffy?

The farmers are not provided with the basic rights so they are leaving this work. There is no transport or carriage vehicle in far off areas. They earn a little and their expanses ruin them.  The families of farmers do not enjoy the basic rights such as education, medicine, food and a place to live. There is only one reason behing this. They are not considered respectful in our society and this tragedy has affect on facts and figures.

In India [Himachal Pardesh], The Government is providing 50% subsidy on cost of seeds, protection material and agricultural implements. On Nitroge-nous Fertilizers, cost subsidy at Rs 200/M.T. Biogas Mo-dels viz. Deenbandhu and public are being popularized on which subsidy at the rate Rs 3,500 per plant up to 1 cubic meter and Rs.4,500 more than 1 cubic meter is being given. Subsidy at 50% on the cost of Micro-Nutrients is being given to S.C. and S.T. Farmers.  Subsidy on Tractors up to 35 HP at the rate 25% limited up to Rs.30,000 only is provided. Sprinklar Irrigation subsidy at the rate 50% to S.C./S-.T./S.F./M.F./Women farmers subject to a maximum of Rs. 15000 per set etc.

In Canada, for example, deductions can be claimed on these expenses:

Cost of fertilizer

Veterinary, medicine and breeding fees

Portion of crop insurance program premiums. A tax credit for Ontario farmers who donate food to food banks was recently introduced, Real Agriculture noted. Taxpayers are eligible for $800,000 of capital gains tax-free on farm properties that qualify during their lifetime. There are only five universities in Pakistan and around 15 research centers related to agriculture.

Research conducted, techniques taught and skills imparted in these institutions rarely reach at the level of small farmers. Farmers need to know how to make optimum use of land. How to use fertilizers and pesticides and what amount of water is exactly useful and necessary for any crop.

Techniques to fight water logging, old irrigation system and low yield must also be learnt. For instance, if take example of using fertilizers in Pakistan, per hector usage of NPK is 170 kg, but the recommended is 300 kg per hector. Hence, in fertilizer application problem is poor nutrition application and incorrect fertilizer case. Lack of management on the part of farmer is a huge problem. The conclusion of these facts and figures define where we are standing in this field which should be our sign of proud. The taxes are huge burden for agriculture as they cause financial issues for farmers.

Our crops have vast diversity but there is no diversity in managing them with proper methods. We will be responsible for the tragedies of future we are going to face.  Our irrigation system is not up to the mark as there is no water in dams, rivers and canal to facilitate crops. Our government policies should favour agriculture in every aspect.

There should be separate education for agriculture at school level especially in villages so that illeteracy rate may decrease. There should be reforestation so that the floods do not spoil our climates and our climate is not affected.  All these factors play a key role in maintaining our dignity, our agriculture. If Government really want to make this nation, an Asian tiger then they have to face the sun rather than waiting for night.

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Kashmir focus

Iqbal Khan

A “thank you” is over due to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, whose erratic and highhanded approach has, yet once again, internationalized the Kashmir dispute. In complete solidarity with the people of Indian occupied Jammu & Kashmir, April 06 was observed as ‘Kashmir Solidarity Day’. Pakistan has always forcefully and effectively taken up the matter of Kashmiri struggle for realizing the right to self-determination, at the UN and all other relevant forums.

The case of IoK is firmly rooted in legality circumscribed by the relevant UNSC Resolutions, which remain unimplemented for the past seven decades. In the latest spate of state sponsored terrorism, Indian occupation forces have martyred more than twenty people during clashes and search operations in southern part of the occupied Valley-Shopian, Islamabad and Kangan. These clashes were the worst since a 3-day skirmish in March, in the forests of northern Kashmir, that had claimed 10 dead. This year has seen an increased violence in the occupied territory with over fifty people already killed. And over 300 defenseless innocent Kashmiris, including women and children, injured by bullets and pellets guns; of these, 41 persons face vision loss leading to partial or complete blindness.

Over 2000 ceasefire violations have taken place along Line of Control and Working Boundary during the past year. After the martyrdom of Kashmiri leader Burhan Wani, Indian security have conducted 1500 operations resulting in martyrdom of 534 innocent Kashmiris. In addition, 21,183 people were wounded, including 8424 who have lost their sight due to use of pallet guns. Indian occupation forces have also arrested 19,230 Kashmiris.

Iran, Turkey, Secretary Generals of OIC and the UN have issued statements on the current situation in IoK. UN Secretary General António Guterres stated that a thorough investigation needs to be conducted pertaining to the recent killing of Kashmiri youth by Indian troops.

Responding to a question during the daily briefing, the UNSG’s spokesperson Stephane Dujarric said, “Civilians have to be protected wherever they are, whether it is in Gaza, whether it is in Jammu and Kashmir, whether it is in Yemen; it is a basic principle.” “He[UNSG] reminds that member states are responsible under international humanitarian law to protect civilians; the Secretary-General reiterates his call on member states to find ways to address disputes in a peaceful manner.” Dujarric added.

Earlier the UN had offered to send fact-finding mission to investigate the horrific incidents but as there was no pressure on New Delhi, thus it did not allow it to happen. Time has come that expeditious steps be taken by the UN. And the UNSG should appoint a special envoy on Kashmir. OIC Secretary General Dr Yousaf said, “OIC condemns Indian army’s brutality in IoK. India has martyred twenty Kashmiris.”

“India should allow OIC to visit IoK, the international community will work towards solving the Kashmir crisis.” he added. He further stated that this problem should be solved according to the will of Kashmiris and United Nations’ resolutions. Head of Dukhtaran-e-Millat (Daughters of Nation), a women’s group fighting for freedom in IoK, Aasiya Andrabi also spoke out against the brutal killings. Amnesty international while declaring Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi an international terrorist said that the UN Agencies should be allowed to visit the Valley to investigate human rights violations and killing of innocent people there. Extremism and bigotry in India threatens regional peace and should be a wakeup call for the international community.

Rising intolerance in India, especially towards its minorities, particularly Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and Dalits, is well documented. Incidents of cow vigilantes and lynching, often with government’s overt support, have consistently been criticized by credible organizations, like Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch. Not with standing, to speed up the state executed atrocities, reportedly, India is planning to deploy National Security Guards (NSG) for launching special operations in IoK.

This notorious entity is famous for conducting special operations in Indian Punjab, including brutal attacks on ‘Golden Temple’.

Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi called special meetings of the Federal Cabinet and the National Security Committee of the Cabinet to review the situation. The cabinet adopted a resolution “condemning the brutal and indiscriminate use of force by India, the illegal suspension of communication services in IoK, in an attempt to silence the Kashmiri voices, and the draconian laws to crush the struggle of the Kashmiri people”. The NSC “urged the international community to take cognizance of India’s systematic human rights violations”. Prime Minister’s earlier request to appoint a UN-mandated Special Envoy on Jammu & Kashmir has once again been reiterated. Time has come for the UNSG to appoint such envoy.

Recently, Indian High Commissioner met with Pakistan’s National Security Adviser. Also, Pakistan’s High Commissioner in New Delhi had met with the Indian NSA. The radiated impression has it that both counties are well on their way to resume full scale dialogue. Pakistan has never refused to hold dialogue with India. However, India has a track record of disrupting the dialogue whenever parleys enter into a meaningful phase. Pakistan and India have hinted at lowering the current heightened tensions with a step-by-step approach leading to the resumption of the comprehensive dialogue process-including Kashmir.

Suitable mechanisms exist between the two countries to sort out issues but these are not being allowed to work. The situation on bilateral front cannot improve until and unless India agrees to hold meaningful and result-oriented dialogue on Kashmir dispute and resolve it as per aspirations of the Kashmiri people and resolutions of the United Nations. Pakistan is committed to resolving all outstanding issues through comprehensive dialogues. Dialogue, both bilateral and multilateral, is the only way forward to resolve our disputes, especially Kashmir.

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Accountability laws and political parties

Ghulam Idris Khan

The ousted Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, the other day, said in response to a question about NAB recent inquiry against the Ambassador-designate to the and on the recommendation of placing his name on Exit Control list (ECL), that it is to be seen who is doing all this. Sharif further termed NAB law as “draconian.” The NAB law was made to get desired results in the 2002 election, he said, adding that it was meant “to hound, bully and black mail our candidates pressurizing them to change their loyalties. This was the sole purpose of NAB.” The ousted prime minister said, “This NAB law should have been abolished but the parliament could not work the way it should have been. May be we didn’t feel the need. Such draconian law and other introduced by the martial law regimes should be abolished in one go.”

Looking back at the history of accountability law of the recent past, it was Nawaz Sharif himself, who during his second term as prime minister, passed the Ehtesab Act, 1997.The objective was “an act to eradicate corruption from public office”.

In this act, a provision of chairman of the Ehtesab cell and chief Ehtesab commissioner was provided, but no such qualification and experience were mentioned.

It was said that the chairman of the Ehtesab cell should be a person either holding a full time salary post or part time post with no entitlement  to salary or allowance, whose name is notified here under with the authority to appoint members of the Ehtesab cell.

There is no such difference in Ehtesab Act of 1997 and that of 1999 promulgated when General Pervaz Musharraf was running affairs of the Pakistan as chief executive.

The National Accountability Ordinance 1999 provide for setting up of NAB so as to eradicate corruption and corrupt practices and holding accountable all those person accused of such practices and matters ancillary.

NAB law provides that chairman be appointed by the president in consultation with leader of the house and leader of the opposition in National Assembly for period of four years on such term and condition by the president and shall not be removed except on grounds of removal of judge of Supreme Court of Pakistan.

Charter of Democracy was signed by between Benazir Bhutto of PPP and Nawaz Sharif of PML in London on May 14, 2006.

The documents envisaged in it chapter  B of the code of conduct  that “Truth and Reconciliation commission be established to acknowledge victims of torture, imprisonment, state- sponsored persecution, target legislation and politically motivated accountability.”

It further calls for “Accountability of NAB and other Ehtesab operators to identify and hold accountable abuse office by NAB operators through purgery and perversion of justices and violation of human right since its establishment”, and “to replace politically motivated NAB with an independent accountability commission, whose chairman  shall be nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the leader of opposition and confirmed by a joint parliamentary committee with 50 percent members from treasury benches and remaining 50 percent from opposition parties.”

The PPP government moved a draft bill in national assembly in April 2009 to make amendments in the NAB law, so as to replace the National Accountability Bureau with that of commission to fulfill the written commitment given in Charter of Democracy (COD).

The bill was referred to committee of law and justice headed by Begum Nasim Chaudhry. 28 meetings of the committee were held but failed to arrive at a consensus.

PML-N was represented by four members including Zahid Hamid, MNA, the law minister of Pervaiz Musharraf, and Anush Rehman, MNA. PML N declared the government law as “toothless law”. PML-N raised four major objections to it.

PML N objected to the proposal that any person was qualified to be appointed as head, stressing that serving judge should be made chairman.

The second one was to omit the provision of exercising power in good faith.

The third was regarding definition of mutual assistance and international cooperation in dealing with corruption.

The party demanded that the clause as existing in NAB law should be retained in the new bill.

The fourth objection was related to applying the law from 1947, and not from 1985 as proposed by the government in the bill.

The two major parties were unable to make new law for accountability, in accordance with the Charter of Democracy.

The disagreement in parliamentary committee by political class gave smooth sailing to the NAB laws of 1999.

The current of PML-N too has established a parliamentary committee of all the parties in parliament to make amendments or proposed new laws to improve the current NAB laws.

This committee held a numbers of meetings under the chairmanship of the then law minister Zahid Hamid. It was reported in media that the proceeding of the committee was going in the right direction.

On November 1, 2017 news appeared in media that the parliamentary committee on National Accountability law agreed that members of judiciary and military were not to be held accountable under the new proposed accountability law, as per law minister Zahid Hamid.

The existing National Accountability Ordinance (NAO) 1999, promulgated by General Pervaiz Musharraf, brings public office holder, civil servants, and politicians under the ambit of the law, but exempted armed forces personnel as well as judges of the superior courts.

Member of the committee Senator Farhatullah Babar of the PPP, who had presented the proposal regarding the inclusion of judges and general in the definition of term public office holder, said that both the parties blocked the smooth passage of legislation that tried to bring “sacred cows” under the ambit of accountability laws.

The new proposed law as yet is not moved in parliament by the government.

The major political parties were observing and watching the NAB activities grilling opponents.

When NAB was active and targeting PPP in Sindh, PML-N was comfortable, as in Punjab, NAB was dormant.

A close friend of Asif Ali Zardari, Dr Asim Hussain was picked up from his government office by Rangers  in Karachi on the charge of facilitating terrorist by providing medical aid in Ziauddin Hospital in Karachi; he was later on booked by NAP on corruption charges.

Same tactics were applied on Sharjeel Memon, former Sindh minister and sitting member of Sindh Assembly. NAB activities in Sindh were stretched up to tehsil level.

The Sindh government was so frustrated that they passed bill from Sindh Assembly to scrap NAB jurisdiction from there. However the Sindh High Court struck down the law.

PTI government in KP established Ehtesab Commission.

A retired lieutenant General was appointed its director general.

When the commission was working and arrested its political opponents particularly of the CM KP, the government of KP and PTI chairman were praising the Ehtesab Commission and its DG performance, but when it start probing against the near and dear ones of CM, suddenly DG was removed from the position .

The NAB Lahore has summoned CM Punjab over involvement in housing scheme.

After the appearance of Shahbaz Sharif, he said that the entire investigation practice was mockery and political agenda of victimization and revenge.

Nawaz Sharif is correct to say that Musharraf used the NAB law as an instrument to make “Q” League and   Zafarullah Jamali government with the majority of single vote. For that, a group of PPP MNAs were converted in to PPP patriot.

The major political parties were the victim of these NAB law.

When there were chances with them to repeal this draconian law, as in 2009 and later in 2013-14, PML-N set that aside. PML-N is to be blamed more for this state of affairs.

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Syria withdrawal dilemma: Trump’s Mideast strategy is as confused as ever

F. Michael Maloof

President Trump for now has decided to allow about 2,000 US troops to remain in Syria. But the controversy over w-hether or not to withdraw t-hem is symptomatic of W-ashington’s lack of overall strategy for the Middle East.

This indecisiveness has prompted Trump to warm up further with Saudi Arabia, the same country that helped finance and logistically support the rise of jihadist Salafists, including Al-Qaida and Islamic State (IS, formerly ISIS). Now, Trump wants the Saudi kingdom to financially underwrite US efforts to consolidate the Sunnis in Syria and Iraq against what both Trump and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman regard as a threat from Iran spreading its influence throughout the region.

It also can be seen as a desperate move by the Trump administration to maintain some modicum of influence in the Middle East in the face of its role rapidly being replaced by the influence of Russia, Iran and now Turkey. Russia and Iran were invited by the government of Syrian President Bashar Assad to assist in fighting jihadist Salafist fighters, many being foreign fighters, along with Al-Qaida and Islamic State. However, US troops never were invited by the Syrian government and have been labeled as an occupying force. In addition, the US Congress never authorized such a move.

Now, Trump has become impatient with the progress of a resolution of the Syrian civil war and sees how expensive and complicated it has become and would rather refocus on US infrastructure reconstruction. He has reverted back to promises made during the presidential campaign in which his foreign policy, in effect, has become his domestic policy.

“Leaving US forces there for a ‘short term’ is a compromise but those who guess we’ll stay long-term may want to re-think,” said Robert Ford, former US ambassador to Syria. “Trump will remember the applause he heard at the Ohio rally when he said he’d pull the forces back out. In my own travels around the US speaking about Syria, I’ve yet to meet any audience anywhere that wants us to get more involved in the Syrian civil war.”

But the president has been bombarded by national security experts who caution against such a sudden removal of American troops, pointing to what occurred following US military departure from Iraq in 2011 and following the initial defeat of the Taliban in Afghanistan in 2001. These experts point out that the US has maintained a military presence in Germ-any, Japan, and South Korea more than 60 years following conflicts with those countries. Those who want the US to remain in Syria also think the US should provide Syria with humanitarian and reconstruction assistance.

While Trump, for the moment, has reversed his decision to withdraw troops from Syria, he has not lifted his suspension of the $200 million earmarked for Syrian reconstruction. A precipitous withdrawal “would send a frightening message” to the entire region, Bayan Sami Abdul Rahman, the Kurdistan Regional Government representative to the US, said at a conference recently held at the United States Institute of Peace.The further concern is the threat to other Trump administration goals, such as blunting Iran’s influence in the region.

“If the US withdraws from Iraq and Syria, it will just make the problems worse,” said Alireza Nader, consultant associated with the RAND Corporation. “The rivalry between Iran and Saudi Arabia is going to heat up. There might be a military conflict between Iran and Israel… If the US really wants to counter Iran in the region, it has to stay in Syria.”The president also has surrounded himself with what has been labeled as a “war cabinet,” such as the neo-con John Bolton, his brand new national security adviser, and Mike Pompeo, the current director of the Central Intelligence Agency, to be his next Secretary of State.

Both are regarded as “hawks,” with Bolton having been an avid supporter of then-President George Bush’s decision to invade Iraq in March 2003 when he was the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security.

These two, along with Sec-retary of Defense James Ma-ttis, have been pushing Trum-p to remain in Syria. They point to the creation of Islam-ic State after his predecessor, former President Barack Obama, pulled out US troops in Iraq in December 2011. Jihadist Islamist fighters quickly filled the military vacuum created by their exit and were able to mount a formidable force capable of defeating the Iraqi military.

With its back against the wall after ISIS took over whole areas near Mosul to begin establishing their caliphate and liquidating large number of Iraqi military forces, Iraq was forced once again to invite back US forces. Their new mission wasn’t to actively engage in a combat role but to train and assist the nearly depleted Iraqi military to be able to defeat ISIS. US Special Forces remain in Iraq to this day. The major argument by Trump’s national security advisers for keeping the troops in Syria in an area controlled by the Kurds is to create a number of bases, principally in eastern Syria, from which those forces can continue to attack remnants of Islamic State fighters who remain in this predominantly Sunni-portion of Syria. Some 95 percent of the ISIS fighters have been cleaned out, their caliphate no longer exists, but another five percent remain in the country.

Their argument is that if US forces suddenly withdrew, the ISIS fighters could regroup and once again become a serious threat.

In Syria, however, the US made a decision to create bases in Kurdish-controlled areas taken back by the Syrian Democratic Forces, which is comprised mainly of Kurds and Arab fighters. This has put the US in a position of confrontation with Turkey. Ankara has made further military inroads into northern Syria against the Kurds who are opposite the southwestern portion of Turkey which is predominantly Kurdish.

Turkey regards the Kurds as a terrorist group, especially the US-backed SDF comprised mainly of the Kurdish People’s Protection Units (YPG). Turkey says its occupation of Syria is to create a buffer against further Kurdish attacks into Turkey, and to hand over to the Assad government those areas it takes from the Kurds.

Given US backing of the Kurds in and around the northern Syrian city of Manbij, a military standoff appears to have developed between the US and Turkey. This could push the two NATO allies into a shooting war. In continuing to occupy mostly the eastern portion of Syria and unite the Sunnis in that region, the US also seeks to control critical oil production in the region, a major source of revenue for the Syrian government.

In this sense, such a strategy suggests the US is reverting to an older mantra of regime change in Syria. Given that a principal author of that approach, John Bolton, now will become Trump’s national security adviser, that goal may once again be back on the table.

Inevitably, their strategy appears to be one of partitioning Syria altogether and isolating the Assad government to the western portion of Syria while giving the Kurds the northern portion across northern Syria and uniting it with northern Iraq. Meantime, these advisers envision being influential in the eastern portion of Syria that borders on the Sunni-controlled portion of western Iraq to help stymie the forward movement of Iran and the Popular Mobilization Units in Iraq comprised mainly of Shiite fighters. If the Saudis pony up with the money, it is quite conceivable that Trump will go along with this strategy as outlined by his hawks.

Trump is already planning to disassociate the US from backing the Iranian nuclear deal and may agree with the Saudi desire of stemming Iran’s influence stretching from Baghdad to Beirut and the Mediterranean Sea by keeping US troops in the Sunni-controlled regions of Syria and Iraq. While this decision will help address Israel’s national security concerns, it also will mean no end in sight to US involvement in the Middle East. However, it won’t mean that US influence will increase or improve conditions there as Russia, Iran and Turkey have laid out a plan to bring stability to Syria, thereby blunting whatever influence the US can assert.


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International conspiracies and Muslim World

Dr. Asmatullah Khan

Today the Muslim world is fully under trap and the clouds of international conspiracies have surrounded them making their sovereignty at risk.  Their mighty foreign masters are not only suking their blood but are tightening their hands around their necks by using sugar quoted poisonous pills as well. Daily hundreds of Muslims, their females and innocent children are facing extreme brutalities and cruelties, particularly in the Israelis, Indians and Serbians occupied Muslim territories with the support of their US and other European’s masters. In the Indian occupied Kashmir and Israelis occupied Palestine’s territories, the limits of every brutality and cruelty have been crossed against the poor and helpless Muslims families. Today the conspiracies of the US and European countries under the umbrella of friendship, real kind supporters and sympathizers, have made the Muslim world, places of extreme brutalities with every inhuman treatments. Daily almost more than 1000 innocent Muslims are killed in the Muslim world under such friendly enmities and Hippocratic politics. Hundreds of Muslims children and families of Syrians drowned in the sea in search of safe shelters for their survival. Thousands of Muslims and their families have taken refuge in other countries and are living a very difficult and inhuman life over there, having no food, no shelter, no health and potable water and hospitalization facilities. Various dignified families have been pushed for begging and immoralities. The victimization of Afghan nation is another example of such international conspiracies with huge human losses since 1979.

All such man inflicted calamities, cruelties and brutalities are mostly sponsored and cultivated by their US, European’s and other such masters, whom the leaders of the Muslim world are trusting with full blind confidence and trust. But unfortunately the blind leaders of the Muslim world never learned any lesson from the non-supportive and Hippocratic attitude of their masters during dethroning of the King of Iran, killing of Anwar Sadat of Egypt, political conspiracy against President Ayub Khan of Pakistan, Hanging of the Prime Minister Z. A. Bhutto of Pakistan, murder of Liaqat Ali Khan of Pakistan, Killing of king Faisal of Saudi Arabia, death sentence to Sadam Hussain of Iraq, poisoning of Yaseer Arafat, killing of Col. Gadhafi of Libya  etc., are such dominant and well known conspiracies hatched in the US and in the allies countries against the leaders of the Muslim Umah. The Jews lobby in the entire world is quite active against the Muslim world to destabilize and eliminate them in all respect and they fully sponsor all such lobbies working against the Muslim countries. A very crucial bloody incidents and tragedies have already been observed in the recent past in countries like, Libya, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Egypt, Serbia, Bosnia, Syria, Bosnia, Yemen and Palestine’s etc., and all such anti Muslims conspiracies have been hatched and properly monitored and sponsored by these lobbies.

But despite all these crucial known facts, the Muslim world is still in their sleeping, highly intoxicated position and all their precious deposits, natural resources, huge capital and investment are still in the hands of the US and their allies and they are exploiting the Muslim world very bitterly.

It is certainly very unfortunate that the Muslim Umah is still in their dormant stage and is unaware from their own strength, power and wealth. They have neither used their manpower, nor utilized their rich deposits and natural resources for their own stability and survival. They kept themselves unaware from the modern day crucial needs of modern technologies, research, and latest techniques of development and production. Mostly their huge population is unskilled having no access to education, research and technologies. In addition, almost their highly potential, skilled and highly learned manpower have already been attracted through various ways in the developed world. Today, the deposits and natural resources in the developing countries are excavated and utilized by their foreign masters having modern technologies and advance research techniques.  They are taking maximum share out of it as their excavating and refining charges. The exports of the developing countries have already been confined mostly to their raw materials and man power. The unity of the developed world has further curtailed their export.

Therefore, their balance of trade and balance of payments remains unfavorable. The conspiracies of the developed countries have kept all such Muslim countries under their thumb in various ways, specifically, by creating bone of contentions for each and every Muslim country just for the sale of their costly and sophisticated weapons and technologies. Almost the whole Muslim world has been kept as a parasite on the developed world in all respect.

This lamentable socio -economic and political situation and exploitation has further put the Muslim world under great pathetic and deplorable socio -economic situation. The living standard in almost all the Muslim countries is getting worse day by day. The deficiencies in the basic needs, capital outflow, growing trade deficits and unfavorable balance of payments in the developing world have further widened the gap between haves and have not’s. The inflationary spirals injected and the various bones of contentions already created by the developed world have further made their socio -economic and living conditions very miserable, pathetic and even worse in all respect. Today with the help of IMF, WTO and World Bank etc. the survival of the Muslim world has been made very crucial and critical. The true and sincere leadership is another serious issue in the Muslim world; because almost the entire developing countries have further been trapped and engulfed in the name of add, grants and loans and have formulated ways to keep them under the trap of trade and add. The developed countries are not allowing the true and sincere leadership of the Muslim world to lead freely their countries for survival with economic freedom and dignity. Hundreds and thousands of such examples can be quoted in the developing world, where their true and sincere leadership have been assassinated or hanged or have either been dethroned through military coups or through their mercenaries nourished and planted by the western and US in the Muslim world.

All such historical events of the recent past certainly demands to give a wakeup call to the Muslim world for the survival and sovereignty of their countries and to safeguard their own identity in all respect. Today self-respect and self-realization is the only remedy in the developing countries against all such policies of the past.

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Miss-education: A device to turn falcon to vulture

Humair ahmed

Little learning is a dangerous thing; Drink deep, or taste not the Pieria Spring: There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain and drinking largely sobers us again.” Alexander Pope

Man, of today’s world living in ultra-modern, exceedingly sophisticated, wit-defyingly scientific age has reduced himself to a meager robotic existence. The man of today is not aroused by serenity, calm and tranquility of the nature, and simplest and purest of the things such as: truth, beauty and love that ought to fill his very existence with pleasure only fall flat to his deaf ears. Hedonist, voluptuary, covetous, avaricious, materialist, narcissist, gross, insensitive, slothful, disturbed, depressed, forgetful, tensed, worried, selfish and ill-mannered are some of the words that portray modern man. Non-tolerance runs in his veins like blood, and selfishness is his bread and butter. Thus, Ultra-modernism that man of today consider as the epitome of civilization has thrown him into the dark, deep and dingy abyss and pit.

Modern man feels arrogance and is haughty on his superior education and believes it champions his cause of civilization, yet it is both scandalous and implausible to trace that the modern man fallen into the deep abyss is the product of this education that instead of civilizing him has turned him into a ferocious beast and a dull-sensed savage. Education has taught him how to fly in sky and how to swim in water, but it has failed to teach him how to walk on ground.

Education, it is said unlocks the door of success, but is it success that man owing to this education has turned into money making machine? is it success for girls to get away with their Purdah once they are educated? Or is it success for son, intoxicated with his education, to think of getting rid of old parents? Is it success to lose relation and get a bungalow? Lose love and get a car? Lose human values and get luxurious life styles? And dismayingly lose the essence of life? If not, then one can safely assume that modern man has strayed from his real path and the reason is his strayed education or miss-education.

Miss education the wrong version of education has been infused in the minds of our youth that has been oblivious and unmindful to our Islamic and eastern civilization, culture and education. An insidious, horrendous and hideous crime is being done to our youth by this miss education: The miss-education has blinkered man to westernized educational system and west loving outlook of life. He has been indoctrinated to the extent that west worship has diminished the golden principles of Islamic and eastern civilization from his minds; He loves and prides himself in adopting western life style and western ways; little does he know that he is being trapped and is being enslaved to the west. He in turn never realizes his true Islamic genius and does not reach his true potential. This abject, appalling and pitiable state of affairs is best explained in the words of Iqbal as: The duped falcon which has been brought up among vultures. Knows not his true potential, nor can rise to majestic heights.

Founding fathers of our nation: Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam worked tirelessly to throw off the yoke of colonialism. They shunned Western philosophies and ideologies in favor of a uniquely Islamic, Pakistan-centric worldview that rejected all Western “isms” that is uniquely imbued and saturated with rich Islamic and eastern culture and civilization. Our founding fathers envisioned this nation to be the Asian tigers, they envisioned this nation to be the leading nation in the world and in vanguard of Islamic states, yet this vision can only be materialized if the nation drinks deep of the “Pierian Spring” of Islamic civilization and culture and revives its lost and unique identity only then the nation can find itself honored respected and successful as the elixir for the nation is only in these words. Read again the lesson of truth, of justice and velour! You will be asked to do the work of taking on responsibility for the world.